As is characteristic for civil law jurisdictions, Ukrainian law consists of the legislative acts enacted by the Parliament of Ukraine and international treaties, which upon their ratiﬁcation become part of the national legislation. According to the Constitution of Ukraine, in case of a conﬂict between the treaty provisions and the national law, the international treaty provisions prevail. Conﬂict with the Constitution itself is the only exception as the Constitution is of
the highest legal authority and always takes precedence over other provisions.2
As a matter of Ukrainian law, the following legal instruments apply to international arbitration: the International Commercial Arbitration Act (ICA Act),3 the Code of Civil Procedure of Ukraine (CCPU),4 and the Commercial Procedural Code of Ukraine (CPCU).5 Subject to minor deviations, the ICA Act is a verbatim adoption of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Arbitration (1985) (Model Law), as amended in 2006, and applies to international commercial arbitration proceedings seated in Ukraine. Certain provisions of the ICA Act equally apply to arbitration proceedings and arbitral awards made abroad, such as the authority of the state courts to refer parties to arbitration unless an arbitration agreement is null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed; and judicial measures in support of arbitration, as well as the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards and the grounds for refusing the same.6
In addition to the key regulation set forth in the ICA Act, the CCPU provides for the setting-aside procedure,7 recognition and enforcement of foreign awards,8 and court-ordered measures in support of international arbitration.9 Aiming at increasing eﬃciency, the CCPU allows for a joint consideration of applications for setting an award aside and its enforcement within the same proceedings.10
The list of non-arbitrable disputes as a matter of Ukrainian law is set forth in the CPCU,11 which also envisages a presumption of validity and enforceability of an arbitration agreement. According to the presumption, any inaccuracies in the text of an arbitration agreement shall be interpreted by court in favour of the agreement’s validity and enforceability.12 The CPCU was amended to mirror in key provisions of the ICA Act providing a state court with authority to leave a claim without consideration if one of the parties resorted to litigation despite a valid and enforceable arbitration agreement.13
Major international arbitration instruments to which Ukraine is a signatory, such as the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention 1958), the European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration (Geneva Convention 1961) and the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID Convention 1965), also constitute part of the legal framework applicable to international arbitration in Ukraine. Additionally, investment arbitration issues may fall within the scope of the Energy Charter Treaty (1994), bilateral investment treaties (65 in force as of May 2021), and other legal instruments with investment provisions.
Ukrainian legislation regulates international and domestic arbitration diﬀerently.
Consistent with the Model Law, the ICA Act provides that contractual and non-contractual civil disputes arising in the course of foreign trade and other forms of international business relations, provided that the place of business of at least one of the parties to the dispute is located outside of Ukraine, may be referred to international arbitration.
In addition to the place of business criteria, the ICA Act clariﬁes that disputes involving Ukrainian entities with foreign investment, or international associations and organisations established in the territory of Ukraine, whether in agreement among themselves or their participants, as well as Ukrainian legal entities and individuals, may be referred to international commercial arbitration.14 This provides a legal ground to resolve by means of international
arbitration disputes that otherwise would qualify as domestic.
In turn, disputes between Ukrainian parties, whether legal entities or individuals (i.e., domestic arbitration cases), fall within the scope of the Law of Ukraine on Arbitration Tribunals (Domestic Arbitration Act). The provisions of the Domestic Arbitration Act do not follow the Model Law, and there are many examples evidencing distinctive regulation of international and domestic arbitrations.
For instance, and unlike the ICA Act, the Domestic Arbitration Act expressly sets forth restrictions as to who is prohibited from acting as an arbitrator (e.g., judges of the general courts and the Constitutional Court), clariﬁes requirements as to the impartiality and independence of arbitrators, and provides for the liability of arbitrators in accordance with the applicable law or the parties’ agreement. There is also a separate list of non-arbitrable disputes within the domestic arbitration legislation.
Similarly, where the CCPU and CPCU provide for the setting aside of awards in domestic arbitrations, the issuing of enforcement orders and the taking of judicial measures in support of domestic arbitration, these respective procedures diﬀer from the ones envisaged for international arbitrations. By way of example, grounds for setting a domestic arbitral award aside or for its enforcement under the CCPU are diﬀerent from those for international
A major overhaul of the judiciary in Ukraine took place in 2016 when a number of amendments were introduced to the legislative regime, in particular the Constitution, the Law of Ukraine ‘On the Judicial System and the Status of Judges’ and the Law of Ukraine ‘On Bodies and Individuals Carrying out Enforcement of Judgments and Decisions of Other Bodies’.
Ukraine’s judicial system is organised according to the principles of territoriality, specialisation and instance diﬀerentiation. Following the judiciary reform, the court system consists of local courts (circuit general, commercial and administrative courts), courts of appeal (circuit general, commercial and administrative courts) and the Supreme Court. As the highest court in the court system of Ukraine, the Supreme Court consists of the Grand Chamber of the Supreme Court, the Cassation Administrative Court, the Cassation Commercial Court, the Cassation Criminal Court and the Cassation Civil Court.16
Also resulting from the judiciary reform, two specialised courts were established to deal with IP matters and corruption cases: the High Court on Intellectual Property and the High Anticorruption Court.
In the arbitration context, a number of signiﬁcant amendments to the procedural laws that became eﬀective on 15 December 2017 introduced major changes in support of international arbitration. One of them was a simpliﬁcation of the procedure for setting awards
aside: according to the amended CCPU, an application for the annulment of an award shall be ﬁled to the court of appeal at the seat of arbitration. The court of appeal is acting as the court of ﬁrst instance and the Supreme Court is acting as a court of appellate instance in case of further challenges. Similarly, a two-tier system is envisaged for the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards where an application for the recognition and enforcement shall be brought before the Kyiv Court of Appeal.17
Judicial measures in support of international arbitration, although available under the ICA Act even before the 2017 amendments to the legislation, were in practice rarely sought because of the absence of relevant procedural rules to grant such measures. After the reform, judicial measures in support of arbitration – for example, interim measures aimed at preserving evidence or assets – may be sought before a respective court of appeal at the debtor’s location or location of the evidence or the assets, or the place of arbitration.18 In addition, the court of appeal at the location of the evidence may order production of such evidence upon a request of the arbitral tribunal or a party to the arbitral proceedings, subject
to the approval of the tribunal.
Under the law, it is prohibited to establish extraordinary or special courts.19
The two permanent arbitral institutions functioning on the territory of Ukraine are the International Commercial Arbitration Court (ICAC) and the Maritime Arbitration Commission (MAC), both at the Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (UCCI) and established in accordance with the ICA Act. The year 2017 marked a quarter of a century since the establishment of the ICAC.
In 2020, the ICAC registered 341 cases,20 which spread across various industries with metallurgy at the top (18.1 per cent of the caseload), followed by chemical industry (12.6 per cent of the caseload), and, subsequently, agribusiness and energy and natural resources splitting the third place (10.5 per cent of the caseload, respectively).21 It is reported that more than 45 per cent of cases were considered in less than three months and 43 per cent within 3–6 months,22 suggesting that time eﬃciency could be among the beneﬁts of considering cases at the ICAC.
In line with eﬀorts to support diversity and equal representation in international arbitration, the ICAC reported that female arbitrators were involved in 42.2 per cent of the cases administered in 2020: 37.9 per cent of female arbitrators were appointed by the President of the UCCI, 57.4 per cent by the parties and 27.8 per cent by the two appointed arbitrators. Female arbitrators comprise 25.4 per cent of the ICAC’s recommended list of arbitrators from which potential candidates for appointment should be selected.23
ICAC case load and ﬁgures reported by major international arbitral institutions often chosen by Ukrainian parties (LCIA, ICC and SCC) evidence that international arbitration is a popular dispute resolution method among the users originating from and operating within this jurisdiction. Beneﬁts of international arbitration are also acknowledged by the Ukrainian government, which is relying on it to attract foreign investment and to protect its own rights and legitimate interests in investment and commercial disputes against private parties and states.
II THE YEAR IN REVIEW
i Developments aﬀecting international arbitration
Following aspirations of the previous legislative reform dating back to 2017, which positively impacted international commercial arbitrations seated in Ukraine and the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards made abroad, 2020 and 2021 saw further initiatives to amend Ukrainian law pertaining to international and domestic arbitration and attracting strategic foreign investment into Ukraine.
In early 2020, during his address at the World Economic Forum, the Ukrainian President referred to the Investment Nanny programme,24 which was suggested would help boost the Ukrainian economy and would operate on the basis of the government organisation UkraineInvest.25 Once the covid-19 quarantine measures permitted, the draft law ‘On State Support for Investment Projects with Signiﬁcant Investments’ (Investment Support Law) was registered and, subsequently, adopted by the Parliament of Ukraine on 17 December 2020. Eﬀective as of 13 February 2021, the Investment Support Law applies to investment projects carried out within the territory of Ukraine in identiﬁed industries (including processing and extraction for further processing of certain minerals, waste management, transport, post and courier services, logistics, education, healthcare, and tourism, etc.) within the term of 5 years and of a total value exceeding €20 million.26 The various beneﬁts oﬀered under the Law are capped at 30 per cent of the estimated value of the investment project and may include tax beneﬁts (exemptions from taxes and import custom duties), preemptive rights regarding the use of land for the investment project, and construction of the necessary adjacent infrastructure (e.g., roads, communication lines, utilities supply network, etc.) at the expense of the state or municipal budgets, or other permitted sources.27 On the basis of the special investment agreement and pursuant to the Investment Support Law, qualiﬁed
investors are entitled to support and assistance with respect to the investment project from the UkraineInvest ‘investment nanny’, who serves as a specially designated state body.28 As of May 2022, UkraineInvest considered requests for potential investment projects with an investment value totaling more than US$2 billion.
Another notable legislative development is the amendments and draft amendments to Ukrainian law on international and domestic arbitration. First, the ICA Act was amended in November 2021 following the adoption of the Law on Mediation.29 The Law on Mediation lays down the foundations of mediation in Ukraine; however, it needs to be further clariﬁed and elaborated on, in particular in relation to correlation with arbitration. With respect to domestic arbitration, the Draft Law No. 3411 dated 29 April 2020 suggested amendments to the Domestic Arbitration Act, including: (1) to expand the list of matters within the competence of domestic arbitration tribunals; (2) to expand the powers of the domestic arbitration self-government; and (3) to set forth a procedure for registering new domestic arbitration tribunals.30 Further, with respect to international arbitration, the Draft Law No. 5347 dated 8 April 2021 was put forward to amend, similarly, the list of arbitrable disputes as a matter of Ukrainian law and the procedure for registering new arbitral institutions. In
addition, the Draft Law No. 5347 suggested a signiﬁcant change of empowering a state court of appeals to resolve issues pertaining to appointment and challenge of an arbitrator, and termination of the arbitrator’s mandate.31 Both of the proposed legislations are yet to be adopted.
As of 1 November 2020, an updated version of the arbitration rules (and Rules of the MAC) applies to the international arbitration proceedings administered by the ICAC. In response to the pandemic and aiming to increase eﬃciency, the rules now better reﬂect virtual hearing procedures and resolve prior electronic communication issues in an eﬀort to gradually transition ‘to 100 % digitalisation of arbitration’.32 In 2021, in ICAC nearly half of the cases were heard online under updated arbitration rules.33 Also, ICAC expelled arbitrators from the Russian Federation and Belarus from the recommendatory list of arbitrators in light of the Russian invasion.34
Ukrainian state courts have similarly accommodated the new 2020 reality and as early as April 2020 the State Judicial Administration of Ukraine approved the procedure for participating in a court hearing by videoconference using a separate system EASYCON.35 After the initial launch and trial period in 2019 of the electronic court system in Ukraine, an amended law on the Uniﬁed Judicial Information and Telecommunication System (‘e-court’) entered into force on 26 May 2021, providing for the gradual rollout of the system.
As one might expect, the Russian invasion in February 2022 wreaked havoc on commercial activities and investments. When the war ends, wide-spread destruction of property, infrastructure and the blockade of Ukraine’s chief seaports will have generated enormous economic harm, potentially leading to signiﬁcant claims and disputes.
In March 2022, the Parliament passed a law allowing for a seizure of assets belonging to the Russian Federation and its residents,36 which paved the way to a subsequent forfeiture of the assets of several Russian state-owned banks, including Sberbank and Development bank Vnesheconombank (VEB). In response, Russia intends to ﬁle an investment claim under the Ukraine–Russia BIT.
Global calls for reparations have led to a ﬂurry of legislative initiatives allowing for seizure of Russian assets located in rich economies with a view to their subsequent transfer to the victims of the aggression. Russia is likely to challenge such measures before courts and tribunals, as it intends to do with regard to the measures taken in Ukraine.
Alternatively, a specialised tribunal may be set up in future to adjudicate on commercial claims arising from the illegal acts committed in Ukraine. Pending its formation, parties will continue to seek redress before the arbitral venues that are already available, although the enforcement of awards in third countries may be associated with challenges such as state immunity from execution. A recent attempt to invoke war-related arguments during the enforcement of an arbitral award before a US court will demonstrate if the war has any impact on the availability of the Russian assets. In April 2022, the beneﬁciaries of the award in Stabil LLC et al. v. the Russian Federation (a case which originated from the annexation of Crimea in 2014) applied for an enforcement before the District of Columbia.
ii Arbitration developments in local courts
Jurisprudence of the Ukrainian courts generally reﬂects the pro-arbitration approach reinforced by the 2017 legislation reform with the practice of the Supreme Court further developing clarity and certainty with respect to application of the law. For instance, in the Evciler v. Dragprom ruling dated 12 November 2020 the Supreme Court resolved a challenge to the competence of an arbitral tribunal to consider disputes concerning validity of the arbitration
agreement. The Supreme Court explained the positive and negative eﬀects of the arbitration agreement, the ﬁrst being the obligation to refer disputes to an arbitral tribunal, and the latter limiting a party’s attempts to resolve disputes falling under the arbitration agreement before a state court. Additionally, the Court emphasised separability of the arbitration agreement from the underlying agreement to conclude that the two agreements may be governed by
distinct laws and that disputes concerning invalidity of the underlying agreement fall within the scope of the arbitration agreement and shall be considered in arbitration. On this basis and taking into account the language of the arbitration agreement in the case providing for all disputes and misunderstandings arising from or in connection with the contract to be resolved in arbitration, the Court resolved that challenges to validity of the arbitration agreement, and the underlying contract, shall be referred to arbitration.37
It is now well established in the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court, and as reﬂected in the ruling dated 29 April 2021 in case No. 910/9841/20, that commercial courts when presented with a matter falling within the scope of an arbitration agreement must as a matter of law leave the claim without consideration if the respondent timely objects to the proceedings before the court, and the court had not determined the arbitration agreement to be void, inoperative or incapable of being performed. In such case, validity of the arbitration agreement shall be determined by the court prima facie. The Supreme Court also conﬁrmed that an arbitral tribunal rather than commercial court is entitled to decide upon its competence and upon validity of an arbitration agreement and it would be improper for the state court to interfere in these matters.38
Further, the Ukrainian Supreme Court solidiﬁed its approach to the waiver of right to object and its impact on the annulment of the award. For instance, in the Markent SIA v. KPD, the Supreme Court dismissed the arguments of Markent SIA (the debtor under the award) that the arbitral award concerned a dispute not falling within the arbitral agreement because Markent SIA did not raise these objections during the course of arbitration while fully participating in the proceedings. Accordingly, the Supreme Court concluded that Markent SIA agreed with consideration of this dispute in arbitration.39
Ukrainian courts continue to actively apply interim measures in support of international arbitration. For instance, in OlainFarm v. Olfa, the Supreme Court conﬁrmed the application of interim measures in a form of seizure of funds within the claim brought at ICAC.40
Turning to the recognition and enforcement of international arbitral awards in Ukraine, public policy ground remains a frequently raised objection. Generally, courts take a restrictive and pro-enforcement approach; however, the assessment and outcome are signiﬁcantly fact dependent. For instance, in VAB.RF v. Ukraine, when dealing with the application for recognition and enforcement of an arbitral award made by an emergency arbitrator seated in the Hague, the Supreme Court conﬁrmed that the recognition and enforcement of the award granting interim measures would be contrary to the public order of Ukraine because it would de facto preclude enforcement of an arbitral award already recognised and enforced by the Kyiv Court of Appeal earlier.41 Thus, recognition and enforcement of an emergency award was refused for the need to preserve legitimacy and binding legal eﬀect of a court judgment.
Another branch of jurisprudence dealing with the public order ground sprouted with respect to the enforcement of arbitral awards triggering sanctions regime developed in response to Russian military aggression. The court practice has been unsettled in this regard. For example, the ruling dated 9 January 2020 in case AVIA-FED-SERVICE v. Artem is an example of a positive outcome of an application seeking recognition and enforcement of an arbitral award in favour of a Russian company, although falling under the Ukrainian sanctions regime. However, enforcement of the award was deferred by the state enforcement oﬃcer because Artem is a company of the industrial military complex of Ukraine, and that there is a temporary ban on enforcement against this type of company in favour of Russian legal entities. Subsequently, the Supreme Court upheld the lawfulness of the state enforcement oﬃcer’s actions, stating that limitations on enforcement are temporary and justiﬁed by the necessity to protect the interests of the Ukrainian people and state, because enforcement of such decisions, that is, against a company of the industrial military complex of Ukraine in favour of Russian legal entities, would be incompatible with the public order of Ukraine.42
Notably, in a Separate Opinion dated 17 March 2020 in case No. 908/3736/15, justices of the Supreme Court noted that court practice on application of the sanctions regime to commercial contracts, including their use as a potential force majeure defence, is only forming and it remains to be determined whether the judgment should be in favour of the claimant (who falls under sanctions), but should not be enforced (voluntarily or compulsory).43
In other similar cases, the Supreme Court took a more consistent approach of refusing recognition and enforcement of an arbitral award on the grounds of public policy, an integral part of which is the sanctions regime.44
In January 2021, recognition and enforcement of a foreign court judgment in favour of a limited liability company incorporated in the Russian Federation against a Public Joint Stock Company registered in Ukraine, in which the State of Ukraine owned a block of shares, was refused for the reason of being contrary to the Law of Ukraine ‘On Sanctions’, as the judgment creditor falls under sanctions and payment of monies to it would be against the
policy of Ukraine on sanctions.45
Similarly, in Ostchem Holding Limites v. Odesa Portside Plant (OPP), upon the appeal of the OPP and the State Property Fund of Ukraine (SPFU), the Supreme Court refused to grant recognition and enforcement of the approximately US$300 million SCC award since it was established that the Gazprombank, a Russian entity, would in fact receive payments under the award, which would be contrary to the public policy of Ukraine. 46 In addition, the Supreme Court reasoned that recognition and enforcement of the award is refused on the basis of public policy for the following reasons: (1) the OPP, a state-owned entity, is of strategic importance to the state’s security and economy; (2) the OPP is in the process of privatisation; and (3) the obligation of the OPP to ensure protection of the people and the environment from the objects of increased danger in its ownership, performance of which would be put at risk in case of enforcement of the award.47 Accordingly, and despite the award in question being a consent award, the issue of recognition and enforcement was ﬁnally resolved after over two years of litigation in Ukraine in favour of the state-owned entity.
As a general point of procedure for seeking recognition and enforcement of international arbitral awards in Ukraine, the Supreme Court clariﬁed that as a matter of Ukrainian law only the parties to the arbitration proceedings are entitled to claiming setting aside of the award or seeking its recognition and enforcement, and subsequently challenging court rulings concerning these claims.48
iii Investor–state disputes
While the saga of Crimean arbitrations continued into 2021, the year also brought new investment disputes involving Ukraine and companies in the various industries.
Turning ﬁrst to the Crimean-related issues, the ruling of the Paris Court of Appeal dated 30 March 2021 annulling the award in favour of the Ukrainian state-owned bank Oshchadbank against the Russian Federation drew major attention, raising concerns about the future of other awards. Despite this turn of events, Ukraine continues its oﬀence against the Russian Federation for assets lost in Crimea with the latest claim announced by the national nuclear energy company Energoatom in May 2021.49 The company seeks redress for the Donuzlavska Wind Power Plant located on the territory of the temporarily occupied Crimea.
The Crimean arbitration saga is also to continue in 2022. For example, as of May 2022 such cases as Ukrenergo v. Russia, DTEK v. Russia, and Naftogaz and others v. Russia are still pending. All these cases relate to expropriation of claimants’ assets in Crimea following the annexation of this territory by the Russian Federation in 2014.50
Changes to the renewable energy subsidy regime in 2020 also put a target of investment claims on Ukraine itself. Foreign and domestic energy producers expressed concerns in April–May 2020 warning the state of an ‘avalanche of arbitration cases’.51 The Energy Charter Treaty claim of the Lithuanian investor Modus Energy brought in May 2021 is the ﬁrst of potentially more alleged to come.52 Another case related to renewable energy was initiated
against Ukraine by SREW under BLEU (Belgium–Luxembourg Economic Union)–Ukraine BIT (1996).53
Further, the Ukrainian government’s tax and antimonopoly measures imposed in 2020 spurred dissatisfaction among foreign investors and in 2021 resulted in two ICSID claims brought by Swedish Misen Energy and Misen Eneterprises under the Sweden–Ukraine BIT with respect to ‘imposition of a 70% subsoil use charge for the production of natural gas from depths of up to 5,000 meters’54 and Philip Morris under the Ukraine–Switzerland and Ukraine–US BIT for the ﬁne imposed by the Antimonopoly Committee of Ukraine.55
Following the denial of Ukrainian courts to recognise and enforce the SCC award in Ostchem Holding Limites v. Odesa Portside Plant, Ostchem launched an Energy Charter Treaty claim at the SCC against Ukraine pleading denial of justice. Now the proceedings are stayed because of the Russian aggression. It is reported that since 24 February 2022, Ukraine has stayed litigation and arbitration proceedings in various cases.56
While in total 11 cases against Ukraine remain pending,57 in 2021 two cases were resolved, namely Olympic Entertainment Group AS (Estonia) v. Ukraine and Littop and others v. Ukraine. Ukraine lost in the ﬁrst case that related to a ban on gambling businesses imposed in June 2009. Under the UNCITRAL tribunal award of 15 April 2021, Ukraine was ordered to compensate the Tallin-based Olympic Entertainment Group for the indirect expropriation resulting from the ban.58 Ukraine succeeded in the second case, as the tribunal in Littop and others v. Ukraine decided that it lacks jurisdiction to hear this case.59
There could potentially be another investment arbitration claims against Ukraine in relation to seized assets of Russian entities. For example, two Russian banks, Sberbank and Vnesheconombank, have already threatened to initiate arbitral proceedings under the 1998 Russia–Ukraine BIT.60
III OUTLOOK AND CONCLUSIONS
Ukrainian law oﬀers clear and understandable mechanisms for resolving disputes eﬀectively through international arbitration and has been amended to better serve the needs of its users. Ukrainian jurisprudence, undoubtedly positively inﬂuenced by the development of professional legal and, particularly, arbitration community, is moving in the direction of aligning the application of Ukrainian law pertaining to arbitration with well-established international principles and constantly developing best practices, promising more legal certainty to the parties. The aspirations of the Ukrainian government to attract foreign investment have the potential to result in creating a better infrastructure for making investments in Ukraine and beneﬁtting investors by means of state support and cooperation. At the same time, however, due to the volatile political climate in Ukraine and the continuing reforms it may be even more advisable and encouraged to have a decent understanding of the situation on the ground, strategies in place for a response to a change and agility in their
implementation. For Ukraine, and this is most certainly applicable to other jurisdictions, 2021 evidenced that whereas business is not done as usual, it is still being done and arbitration remains a frequently relied upon method for straightening out wrinkles in the process.
2 Constitution of Ukraine, Law of Ukraine No. 245к/96-BP dated 28 June 1996, Article 9.
3 Law of Ukraine ‘On International Commercial Arbitration’ No. 4002-XII dated 24 February 1994.
4 Code of Civil Procedure of Ukraine, Law of Ukraine No. 1618-IV dated 18 March 2004.
5 Commercial Procedural Code of Ukraine, Law of Ukraine No. 1798-XII dated 6 November 1991.
6 Law of Ukraine ‘On International Commercial Arbitration’ No. 4002-XII dated 24 February 1994, Article 1(1).
7 Code of Civil Procedure of Ukraine, Law of Ukraine No. 1618-IV dated 18 March 2004, Section VIII.
8 id., Section IX.
9 id., Articles 84(11), 85(9), 94, 116(7), 152(6).
10 id., Article 457(8).
11 Commercial Procedure Code of Ukraine, Law of Ukraine No. 1798-XII dated 6 November 1991, Article 22(1).
12 id., Article 22(3).
13 Code of Civil Procedure of Ukraine, Law of Ukraine No. 1618-IV dated 18 March 2004, Article 226.
14 Law of Ukraine ‘On International Commercial Arbitration’ No. 4002-XII dated 24 February 1994, Article 1(2).
15 Code of Civil Procedure of Ukraine, Law of Ukraine No. 1618-IV dated 18 March 2004, Articles 458, 459, 478 and 486.
16 The Law of Ukraine on the Judicial System and Status of Judges No. 2509-VII dated 5 August 2018, Articles 17, 37.
17 Code of Civil Procedure of Ukraine, Law of Ukraine No. 1618-IV dated 18 March 2004, Article 23(3).
18 id., Article 116(8).
19 Law of Ukraine ‘On the Judicial System and the Status of Judges’ No. 1402-VIII dated 2 June 2016, Article 3(2).
20 ICAC at the UCCI oﬃcial website, Statistics and practice, available at https://icac.org.ua/statystyka-ta-praktyka/statystyka/.
23 ICAC at the UCCI oﬃcial website, 2020 Report, available at https://icac.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/report_sum_ukr_2020_draft13.pdf.
24 Press release dated 22 January 2020 ‘Investment nanny and tax holidays: President outlined his proposals to investors in Davos’, President of Ukraine Oﬃcial Website, available at https://www.president.gov.ua/en/news/investment-nanny-ta-podatkovi-kanikuli-prezident-ukrayini-u-59381.
25 ‘Investment Nanny’ will work on basis of UkraineInvest – Mylovanov, Interfax-Ukraine, 28 January 2020, available at https://en.interfax.com.ua/news/economic/637767.html.
26 See Law of Ukraine ‘On State Support for Investment Projects with Signiﬁcant Investments’, No. 1116-IX dated 17 December 2020, Article 5.
27 See Law of Ukraine ‘On State Support for Investment Projects with Signiﬁcant Investments’, No. 1116-IX dated 17 December 2020, Article 3.
28 See id., Article 6.
29 See Law ‘On Mediation’, No. 1875-IX dated 16 November 2021.
30 See Draft Law ‘On Amending Certain Laws of Ukraine for Improving Formation and Operation of Domestic Arbitral Tribunals in Order to Restore Conﬁdence in Arbitration’, No. 3411 dated 29 April 2020.
31 See Draft Law ‘On Amending Certain Laws for Improving the Functioning of Arbitral Tribunals’, No. 5347 dated 8 April 2021.
32 Press release ICAC at the UCCI available at https://icac.org.ua/en/novyny-ta-publikatsiyi/tpp-ukrayiny-zatverdyla-zminy-do-reglamentiv-mkas-i-mak-pry-tpp-ukrayiny/.
33 ICAC at the UCCI oﬃcial website, About the ICAC: https://icac.org.ua/en/novyny-ta-publikatsiyi/zagalni-zbori-arbitriv-icac-ta-umac-pri-torgovo-promislovij-palati-ukrayini-pidsumki-roboti-za-2021-rik-ta-zavdannya-na-2022-rik/.
34 ICAC at the UCCI oﬃcial website, About the ICAC: https://icac.org.ua/en/novyny-ta-publikatsiyi/icac-ta-umac-vyklyuchyly-rosijskyh-ta-biloruskyh-arbitriv-z-rekomendatsijnyh-spyskiv/.
35 Order of the State Judicial Administration of Ukraine, No. 196 dated 23 April 2020, available in Ukrainian at https://dsa.court.gov.ua/userﬁles/media/dsa_pres_slujba_2019/dsa_pres_slujba_2020/N_196_20.pdf.
36 See Law of Ukraine ‘On Basic Principles of Compulsory Seizure in Ukraine of Property of the Russian Federation and Its Residents’, No. 2116-IX dated 3 March 2022.
37 Resolution of the Supreme Court in case No. 910/13366/18 dated 12 November 2020.
38 Ruling of the Supreme Court in case No. 910/9841/20 dated 29 April 2021.
39 Resolution of the Supreme Court in case No. 824/152/20 dated 29 July 2021.
40 Resolution of the Supreme Court in case No. N/A, proceedings No. 61-10307ав20 dated 3 December 2020.
41 Resolution of the Supreme Court in case No. 824/178/19 dated 14 January 2021.
42 Resolution of the Supreme Court in case No. 761/46285/16-ц dated 27 January 2021.
43 Separate Opinion of the Supreme Court Justices in case No. 908/3736/15 dated 17 March 2020.
44 Resolution of the Supreme Court in case No. 824/100/19 dated 13 February 2020; Resolution of the Supreme Court in case No. 824/101/19 dated 2 July 2020.
45 Resolution of the Supreme Court in case No. 335/8322/17 dated 20 January 2021.
46 Resolution of the Supreme Court in case No. 824/241/2018 dated 8 June 2021.
48 Resolution of the Supreme Court in case No. 824/66/19 dated 10 November 2020.
49 NNEGC Energoatom, press release dated 27 May 2021, available at https://www.energoatom.com.ua/en/press_center-19/company-20/p/energoatom_institutes_legal_proceedings_against_russia_on_damages_for_lost_in_crimea_assets-47293.
50 Investment Policy Hub, Investment Dispute Settlement Navigator, Russia: https://investmentpolicy.unctad.org/investment-dispute-settlement/country/175/russian-federation.
51 Letter dated 27 May 2020 on the Proposed Restructuring of Government of Ukraine Obligations to Renewable Energy Sector, cited in C Sanders, ‘Ukraine threatened over renewable energy reforms’, Global Arbitration Review, 4 June 2020.
52 ‘Lithuanian investor SES Modus Grupe initiated international arbitration against Ukraine for EUR 11.5 million’, Interfax-Ukraine, 28 April 2021, available at https://interfax.com.ua/news/investments/740626.html.
53 ICSID Case Details: https://icsid.worldbank.org/cases/case-database/case-detail?CaseNo=ARB/21/52.
54 Misen Energy, press release dated 25 March 2021, available at http://www.misenenergy.se/en/main/news/press_releases?id=20781.
55 ‘Philip Morris ﬁled a claim against Ukraine before an international investment arbitration for the AMCU ﬁne’, Interfax-Ukraine, 22 December 2020, available at https://ua.interfax.com.ua/news/economic/711643.html.
56 Global Arbitration Review, Firtash claim against Ukraine comes to light: https://globalarbitrationreview.com/article/ﬁrtash-claim-against-ukraine-comes-light.
57 Investment Policy Hub, Investment Dispute Settlement Navigator, Ukraine: https://investmentpolicy.unctad.org/investment-dispute-settlement/country/219/ukraine.
58 Award dated 15 April 2021, PCA Case No. 2019-18, cited in J. Ballantyne, ‘Ukraine liable over gambling ban’, Global Arbitration Review, 18 May 2021.
59 Award dated 4 February 2021, SCC Case No. V 2015/092: https://jusmundi.com/fr/document/decision/pdf/en-littop-enterprises-limited-bridgemont-ventures-limited-and-bordo-management-limited-v-ukraine-none-currently-available-thursday-1st-january-2015.
60 Global Arbitration Review, Russian state banks warn of claims against Ukraine: https://globalarbitrationreview.com/article/russian-state-banks-warn-of-claims-against-ukraine.
Published: The International Arbitration Review, June 2022
Authors: Oleg Alyoshin, partner; Vsevolod Mazurenko, senior associate; Olha Nosenko, associate